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Business: Location and Tracking, Telecommunications
The purpose of RFID Expert is to inform the wide audience about latest tendencies in technology of radio-frequency identification (RFID) which actively develops and takes root today in set of various directions.
In the nearest future we start to publish practical materials about the introduction of the radio-frequency identification technology, NFC by Russian and international companies. You can learn more about the technology of radio-frequency identifications, the RFID companies delivering the equipment, supplies, integration services, both upcoming Russian and international exhibitions and conferences.
- Battery-assisted and true active
- On-board battery power source
- Greater range but higher cost
- Requires less power from reader
- Finite Life
Automatic Identification Manufacturers
A conductive structure specifically designed to couple or radiate electromagnetic energy. This is a coil of wound copper wire (aluminum) designed specifically to emit rfid signal.
In technical terms, the gain is the ratio of the power required at the input of a loss-free reference antenna to the power supplied to the input of the given antenna to produce, in a given direction, the same field strength at the same distance.
Antenna gain is usually expressed in decibels and the higher the gain the more powerful the energy output. Antennas with higher gain will be able to read tags from farther away.
A general term used to cover methods of preventing radio waves from one device from interfering with radio waves from another. Anti-collision algorithms are also used to read more than one tag in the same reader's field.
One of the most common applications for RFID. Placing RFID transponders on or in high-value assets and returnable transport containers enables companies to gather data on their location quickly and with little or no manual intervention. Tagging assets allows companies to increase asset utilization, identify the last known user of assets, automate maintenance routines and reduce lost items.
A broad term that covers methods of collecting data and entering it directly into computer systems without human involvement. Technologies normally considered part of auto-ID include bar codes, biometrics, RFID and voice recognition.
A method of communication between passive tags (ones that do not use batteries to broadcast a signal) and readers. RFID tags< using backscatter technology reflect back to the reader radio waves from a reader, usually at the same carrier frequency. The reflected signal is modulated to transmit data.
A standard method of identifying the manufacturer and product category of a particular item. The bar code was adopted in the 1970s because the bars were easier for machines to read than optical characters. The main drawbacks of bar codes main are they don’t, in most cases, identify unique items and scanners have to have line of sight to read them.
An RFID reader< that is connected to a host system.
These are RFID tags with batteries, but they communicate using the same backscatter technique as passive tags (tags with no battery). They use the battery to run the circuitry on the microchip and sometimes an onboard sensor. They have a longer read range than a regular passive RFID tag because all of the energy gathered from the reader can be reflected back to the reader. They are sometimes called "semi-passive RFID tags."
An active or semi-active RFID tag that is programmed to wake up and broadcast its signal at a set intervals.
A bistatic RFID interrogator, or reader, uses one antenna to transmit RF energy to the RFID tag and a different antenna to receive energy reflected back from the tag.
A frequency used to transmit data
A programmable digital electronic component (also called a microprocessor) designed to incorporate the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) onto a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). Multiple chips can serve as the CPU in a computer system, embedded system or handheld device.
Contactless smart card<
An awkward name for a credit card or loyalty card that contains an RFID chip to transmit information to a reader without having to be swiped through a reader. Such cards can speed checkout, providing consumers with more convenience.
Data transfer rate<
The number of characters that can be transferred from an RFID tag to a reader within a given time. Baud rates are also used to quantify how fast RFID readers< can read the information on the RFID tag. This differs from read rate, which refers to how many tags can be read within a given period of time.
An RFID tag that cannot be read by an interrogator.
A channel capable of transmitting data in both directions at the same time. (Half duplex is a channel capable of transmitting data in both directions, but not simultaneously.)
A method of sealing a digital document in a manner similar to that used for electronic signatures. Electronic seals enable computers to authenticate that documents or electronic messages have not been altered, providing a level of security in digital communications.
That standard specify the modulation schemes, coding, transfer speeds and frame format of the RF interface of NFC devices, as well as initialization schemes and conditions required for data collision-control during initialization for both passive and active NFC modes. Furthermore, it also define the transport protocol, including protocol activation and data-exchange methods. See also ISO/IEC 18092
Effective isotropic radiated power
A process of transferring modulated data or energy from one system component to another
A secure file that stores data about each move a product makes through the supply chain. Pedigrees can help to reduce counterfeiting of drugs and other products. EPCglobal has ratified an e-pedigree standard for the industry.
Electronic Product Code<
A serial, created by the Auto-ID Center, which will complement barcodes. The EPC contains digits to identify the manufacturer, product category and the individual item.
A non-profit organization set up the Uniform Code Council and EAN International, the two organizations that maintain barcode standards, to commercialize EPC technology. EPCglobal is made up of chapters in different countries and regions. It is commercializing the technology originally developed by the Auto-ID Center.
EPC Information Service<
Part of the EPC Network. The EPC Information Service is a network infrastructure that enables companies to store data associated with EPCs in secure databases on the Web. The EPC Information Service has been ratified and enables companies to provide different levels of access to data to different groups.
Some information associated with an EPC might be available to everyone. Other information might be available only to a manufacturer's retail customers. The service also includes a number of applications, such as the EPC Discovery Service.
The Internet-based technologies and services that enable companies to retrieve data associated with EPCs.
European Article Number<
A system for identifying products developed by EAN International, the bar code standards body in Europe. There are several types of bar codes that use EANs, including EAN-8, EAN-13 and EAN-14.
RFID reader antennas emit electromagnetic radiation (radio waves). If an RFID tag is outside of one full wavelength of the reader, it is said to be in the "far field." If it is within one full wavelength away, it is said to be in the "near field." The far field signal decays as the square of the distance from the antenna, while the near field signal decays as the cube of distance from the antenna.
So passive RFID systems< that rely on far field communications (typically UHF and microwave systems) have a longer read range than those that use near field communications (typically low- and high-frequency systems).
An RFID interrogator mounted to a wall, doorway, gate, table, shelf or other permanent or non-mobile structure, enabling employees to read the unique ID numbers of RFID tags attached to items in a warehouse or other setting along the supply chain.
The number of repetitions of a complete wave within one second. 1 Hz equals one complete waveform in one second. 1KHz equals 1,000 waves in a second. RFID tags use low, high, ultra-high and microwave frequencies. Each frequency has advantages and disadvantages that make them more suitable for some applications than for others.
This is generally considered to be from 3 MHz to 30 MHz. HF RFID tags typically operate at 13.56 MHz. They can be read from less than 3 feet away and transmit data faster than low-frequency tags. But they consume more power than low-frequency tags.
International Electro-technical Commission
An RFID microchip attached to an antenna and mounted on a substrate. Inlays are essentially unfinished RFID labels. They are usually sold to label converters who turn them into smart labels. They are also sometimes called inlets.
A microelectronic semiconductor device comprising many interconnected transistors and other components. Most RFID tags have ICs.
International Organization for Standardization<
A non-governmental organization made up of the national standards institutes of 146 countries. Each member country has one representative and the organization maintains a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system.
The process of communicating with and reading a transponder(TAG)
The area in which a passive interrogator can provide enough energy to power up a passive tag and receive back information. Also called the read field or reader field. Tags outside the interrogation zone do not receive enough energy from the interrogator to reflect back a signal.
ISIS, the joint venture between mobile network operators AT&T, Verizon and T-Mobile which is set to introduce a commercial NFC service in the US from 2012.
International organization for standards
The international standard for proximity cards
The international standard defining frequencies, baud rate, bit coding and data structures of the transponders used for animal identification.
A set of international standards covering proximity smart cards.
RFID for Item Management Air Interface
Generic Parameters for Air Interface for Global Interface
Parameters for Air Interface <135 kHz
Parameters for Air Interface at 13.56 MHz
Parameters for Air Interface at 2.45 GHz
Parameters for Air Interface at 5.8 GHz
ISO 18000-6-Parameters for Air Interface at 860-930MHz
A set of international standards covering the basic characteristics of smart cards, such as physical and electrical characteristics, communication protocols and others.
The international standard related to smart cards.
That standard specify the modulation schemes, coding, transfer speeds and frame format of the RF interface of NFC devices, as well as initialization schemes and conditions required for data collision-control during initialization for both passive and active NFC modes. Furthermore, it also define the transport protocol, including protocol activation and data-exchange methods.
A standard defining two air interface protocols and a single application program interface (API) for real-time locating systems (RTLS) used in asset management. The standard is intended to allow for compatibility and encourage interoperability of products for the growing RTLS market.
A term used to discribed the tagging of individual products, as opposed to case-level and pallet-level tagging.
Identity Theft Resource Center® (ITRC) is a nonprofit, nationally respected organization dedicated exclusively to the understanding and prevention of identity theft. The ITRC provides victim and consumer support as well as public education. The ITRC also advises governmental agencies, legislators, law enforcement, and businesses about the evolving and growing problem of identity theft.
Joint Technical Committee
From 30 kHz to 300 kHz. Low-frequency tags typical operate at 125 kHz or 134 kHz. The main disadvantages of low-frequency tags are they have to be read from within three feet and the rate of data transfer is slow. But they are less subject to interference than UHF tags.
From 30 kHz to 300 kHz. Low-frequency tags typical operate at 125 kHz or 134 kHz.
The main disadvantages of low-frequency tags are they have to be read from within three feet and the rate of data transfer is slow. But they are less subject to interference than UHF tags.
The amount of data that can be stored on the microchip in an RFID tag. It can range from 64 bits to 32 kilobytes or more on passive tags.
In the RFID world, this term is generally used to refer to software that resides on a server between readers and enterprise applications. The middleware is used to filter data and pass on only useful information to enterprise applications. Some middleware can also be used to manage readers on a network.
An RFID interrogator that can be carried or transported on a person, vehicle or apparatus, enabling employees to read the unique ID numbers of RFID tags attached to items in a warehouse or other setting along the supply chain.
The process or capability of a radio frequency identification reader to read a number of transponders present within the system’s interrogation zone at the same time.
An electronic device that allows a reader to have more than one antenna. Each antenna scans the field in a preset order. This reduces the number of readers needed to cover a given area, such as a dock door, and prevents the antennas from interfering with one another.
Near-field communication (NFC)<
RFID reader antennas emit electromagnetic radiation (radio waves). If an RFID tag is within full wavelength of the reader, it is sometimes said to be in the "near field" (as with many RFID terms, definitions are not precise). If it is more than the distance of one full wavelength away, it is said to be in the "far field."
The near field signal decays as the cube of distance from the antenna, while the far field signal decays as the square of the distance from the antenna. So passive RFID systems that rely on near-field communication (typically low- and high-frequency systems) have a shorter read range than those that use far field communication (UHF and microwave systems)
Area in the reader field that doesn't receive radio waves. This is essentially the reader's blind spot. It is a phenomenon common to UHF systems.
Original equipment manufacturer (OEM)<
A company that builds its own products from components bought from other manufacturers.
Powered by energy from reader (no internal battery)
- Smaller, lighter, less expensive
- Almost unlimited life
- Requires higher power from reader
An RFID tag without its own power source and transmitter. When radio waves from the reader reach the chip’s antenna, the energy is converted by the antenna into electricity that can power up the microchip in the tag.
The tag is able to send back information stored on the chip. Today, simple passive tags cost from U.S. 20 cents to several dollars, depending on the amount of memory on the tag, packaging and other features.
MasterCard's PayPass is an EMV compatible, "contactless" payment feature based on the ISO/IEC 14443 standard that provides cardholders with a simpler way to pay by tapping a payment card or other payment device, such as a phone or key fob, on a point-of-sale terminal reader rather than swiping or inserting a card.
When a reader reports the presence of a tag that doesn't exist. This phenomenon is also sometimes called a phantom transaction or false read.
Point of sale (POS) (also sometimes referred to as Point of purchase (POP) ) or checkout is the location where a transaction occurs.
A "checkout" refers to a POS terminal or more generally to the hardware and software used for checkouts, the equivalent of an electronic cash register. A POS terminal manages the selling process by a salesperson accessible interface. The same system allows the creation and printing of the receipt.
An RFID interrogator gateway used in manufacturing settings. Forklifts or other methods are used to transport tagged items through a portal reader to collect RFID tag data.
An RFID printer, or printer/encoder, is a device that prints a label with an embedded RFID transponder and encodes information in the chip within the transponder.
Programming a tag<
Writing data to an RFID tag. When a serial number is first written to a tag, this is sometimes called "commissioning a tag."
A device that detects the presence of an object and signals another device. Proximity sensors are often used on manufacturing lines to alert robots or routing devices on a conveyor to the presence of an object. They can be used in RFID systems to turn on readers.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)<
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a set of hardware, software, people, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates. In cryptography, a PKI is an arrangement that binds public keys with respective user identities by means of a certificate authority (CA).
The user identity must be unique within each CA domain. The binding is established through the registration and issuance process, which, depending on the level of assurance the binding has, may be carried out by software at a CA, or under human supervision. The PKI role that assures this binding is called the Registration Authority (RA). For each user, the user identity, the public key, their binding, validity conditions and other attributes are made unforgeable in public key certificates issued by the CA.
The term trusted third party (TTP) may also be used for certificate authority (CA). The term PKI is sometimes erroneously used to denote public key algorithms, which do not require the use of a CA.
An RFID tag that can be read only occasionally with the interrogator output at full power, or which can only be read at very close range.
Radio Frequency Identification<
Any method of identifying unique items using radio waves. Typically, a reader (also called an interrogator) communicates with a transponder, which holds digital information in a microchip. But there are chipless forms of RFID tags that use material to reflect back a portion of the radio waves beamed at them.
The process of retrieving data stored on an RFID tag by sending radio waves to the tag and converting the waves the tag sends back into data.
The distance from which a reader can communicate with a tag. Active tags have a longer read range than passive tags because they use their own power source (usually a battery) to transmit signals to the reader.
With passive tags, the read range is influenced by frequency, reader output power, antenna design, and method of powering up the tag. Low-frequency tags use inductive coupling, which requires the tag to be within a few feet of the reader.
A term usually used to describe the number of tags that can be read within a given period or the number of times a single tag can be read within a given period. The read rate can also mean the maximum rate at which data can be read from a tag expressed in bits or bytes per second.
A term used to describe RFID tags that contain data that cannot be changed unless the microchip is reprogrammed electronically.
A term used to describe an RFID tag that can store new information on its microchip. These tags are often used on reusable containers and other assets. When the contents of the container are changed, new information is written to the tag.
The unit powers the coil of wire known as the antenna, filters and powers them for transmission over distance.
The area of coverage. Tags outside the reader field do not receive radio waves and can't be read. This is also sometimes referred to as the read field.
Real-time locating system (RTLS)<
A system of finding the position of assets, using active RFID tags. The tags broadcast a signal, which is received by three reader antennas. The time each signal is received is passed on to a software system that uses triangulation to calculate the location of the asset. RTLS is used to find containers in a distribution yard, and many automakers use it to track parts bins within a large factory.
Return on Investment (ROI)<
The ratio of money gained or lost on an investment relative to the amount invested. The amount gained or lost may be referred to as interest, profit/loss, gain/loss or net income/loss, while the money invested may be referred to as the asset, capital, principal or cost basis of the investment. ROI is sometimes also known as "rate of profit" or "rate of return."
The path through which energy travels from the RFID tag to the interrogator, or reader. It is also sometimes called the back channel.
Abb. Radio Frequency IDentification RFID uses a semiconductor (micro-chip) in a tag or label to transmit stored data when the tag or label is exposed to radio waves of the correct frequency.
A microchip attached to an antenna that is packaged in a way that it can be applied to an object. The tag picks up signals from and sends signals to a reader. The tag contains a unique serial number, but may have other information, such as a customers' account number. Tags come in many forms, such smart labels that can have a barcode printed on it, or the tag can simply be mounted inside a carton or embedded in plastic. RFID tags can be active, passive or semi-passive.
Similar to active tags, but the battery is used to run the microchip's circuitry but not to broadcast a signal to the reader. Some semi-passive tags sleep until they are woken up by a signal from the reader, which conserves battery life. Semi-passive tags can cost a dollar or more. These tags are sometimes called battery-assisted tags.
A device that responds to a physical stimulus and produces an electronic signal. Sensors are increasingly being combined with RFID tags to detect the presence of a stimulus at an identifiable location.
A credit card or other kind of card with an embedded microchip. When the card uses RFID technology to send and receive data it is called a contactless smart card.
A generic term that usually refers to a bar code label that contains an RFID transponder. It's considered "smart" because it can store information, such as a unique serial number, and communicate with a reader.
Supply Chain Management System<
The process of planning, implementing and controlling the operations of the supply chain to efficiently satisfy customer requirements. Supply-chain management spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory and finished goods, from the point of origin to the point of consumption.
A microchip attached to an antenna that is packaged in a way that it can be applied to an object. The tag picks up signals from and sends signals to a reader. The tag contains a unique serial number, but may have other information, such as a customers' account number.
Tags come in many forms, such smart labels that can have a barcode printed on it, or the tag can simply be mounted inside a carton or embedded in plastic. RFID tags can be active, passive or semi-passive.
Track and trace<
The process of retrieving information about the movement and location of goods.
A device that both transmits and receives radio waves.
A memory device, usually eeprom, programmed with a series of bits.
From 300 MHz to 3 GHz. Typically, RFID tags that operate between 866 MHz to 960 MHz. They can send information faster and farther than high- and low-frequency tags. But radio waves don’t pass through items with high water content, such as fruit, at these frequencies.
Warehouse Management System<
A key component of the supply chain, intended to control the movement and storage of materials within a warehouse and process the associated transactions, including shipping, receiving, putaway and picking.
Such systems also direct and optimize stock putaway based on real-time information about the status of bin utilization. WMSs utilize auto-ID data-capture technology, such as bar-code scanners, mobile computers, wireless LANs and RFID, to efficiently monitor the flow of products.
The generic wireless interface of mobile computing devices, such as laptops used in local area networks (LANs). The term "Wi-Fi" (a play on the term "Hi-Fi") is thought to be an abbreviation for "wireless fidelity." Common uses include Internet and voice-over-IP phone access, gaming and network connectivity for such consumer electronics as televisions, DVD players and digital cameras.
In spite of media reports about possible health risks from Wi-Fi, scientific studies have failed to show a causal effect.
The distance from which data can be written to an RFID tag.
The rate at which information is transferred to a tag, written into the tag's memory and verified as being correct.
A specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). ZigBee is targeted at RF applications requiring a low data rate, long battery life and secure networking.
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